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PI Piezomaterials
Overview

Piezoelectric Materials

Piezo Materials Based on Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT)

PI Ceramic provides a wide selection of piezoelectric ceramic materials based on modified lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and barium titanate. The designations of "soft" and "hard" piezo ceramics refer to the mobility of the dipoles or domains and hence also to the polarization and depolarization behavior. For actuator applications, ferroelectrically soft piezoceramics with low polarity reversal field strengths are used. Ferroelectrically hard PZT materials are primarily used in high-power acoustic applications. In addition, PI Ceramic offers lead-free piezo ceramics, currently used especially as ultrasonic transducers, and a crystalline actuator material.

For application-specific properties, actuators and transducers can be manufactured from special materials, although the technical implementation has to be checked individually.

The material properties are classified according to the EN 50324 European Standard.

Soft Materials
Piezoelectric Material
 

Soft Piezoelectric Materials

Ideal for Piezo Actuators and Sensors

Ferroelectrically soft piezo ceramic materials can be polarized fairly easily even at relatively low field strengths. This is due to the comparably high domain mobility typical for them. The advantages of soft PZT materials are their large piezoelectric charge coefficient, moderate permittivities and high coupling factors.

Applications

Important fields of application for soft piezo ceramics are: Actuators for micropositioning and nanopositioning, sensors, such as conventional vibration detectors, ultrasonic transmitters and receivers, e.g. for flow or level measurement, object identification or monitoring, as well as for electro-acoustic applications as sound transducers and microphones, and also as sound pickups on musical instruments.

Material Properties and Classification

PIC151 Standard material for actuators of the >> PICA Stack/Thru and >> Piezo Tube series
Material                           Modified lead zirconate titanate
Characteristics High permittivity, large coupling factor, high piezoelectric charge coefficient, relatively high Curie temperature
Suitable for Actuators, low-power ultrasonic transducers, low-frequency sound transducers
Classification in
accordance
with EN 50324-1
600
MIL-Standard
DOD-STD-1376A
II
PIC255 Standard material for >> PICA Power, >> DuraAct, >> PICA Shear and >> Piezo Tube series
Material                           Modified lead zirconate titanate
Characteristics Very high Curie temperature, moderate permittivity, high coupling factor, high charge coefficient, low mechanical quality factor, low temperature coefficient, relatively high polarity reversal field strength (>1 kV/mm)
Suitable for Actuator applications for dynamic operating conditions and high ambient temperatures, low-power ultrasonic transducers, non-resonant broadband systems, force and acoustic pickup sensors
Classification in
accordance
with EN 50324-1
200
MIL-Standard
DOD-STD-1376A
II
PIC252 Standard material for >> PICMA® Stack/Chip, >> PICMA® Bender and >> DuraAct Power series
Material                           Modified lead zirconate titanate
Characteristics Very high Curie temperature, moderate permittivity, high coupling factor, high deformation or charge coefficient, low mechanical quality factor, low temperature coefficient, relatively high polarity reversal field strength (>1 kV/mm), low sintering temperature for use in the multilayer tape process
Suitable for Actuator applications for dynamic operating conditions and high ambient temperatures, low-power ultrasonic transducers, non-resonant broadband systems, force and acoustic pickup sensors
Classification in
accordance
with EN 50324-1
200
MIL-Standard
DOD-STD-1376A
II
PIC155  
Material                           Modified lead zirconate titanate
Characteristics Very high Curie temperature, moderate permittivity, low mechanical quality factor, low temperature coefficient, high sensitivity (g coefficients)
Suitable for Applications which require a high g coefficient (piezoelectric voltage coefficient), e.g. for microphones and vibration pickups with preamplifier, vibration measurements at low frequencies
Classification in
accordance
with EN 50324-1
200
MIL-Standard
DOD-STD-1376A
II
PIC153 Material for special actuators of the >> PICA Stack/Thru series and for glued bending actuators
Material                           Modified lead zirconate titanate
Characteristics Extremely high permittivity and coupling factors, high charge coefficient, Curie temperature around
185 °C
Suitable for Hydrophones, transducers in medical diagnostics and PZT translators
Classification in
accordance
with EN 50324-1
600
MIL-Standard
DOD-STD-1376A
VI
PIC152  
Material                           Modified lead zirconate titanate
Characteristics Permittivity with extremely low temperature coefficient                                                                                       
Suitable for Force and acceleration transducers
Classification in
accordance
with EN 50324-1
200
MIL-Standard
DOD-STD-1376A
II
Hard Materials
Piezo Material
 

Hard Piezoelectric Materials

High-Performance Material for Ultrasonic Transducers

Ferroelectrically hard PZT materials can be subjected to high electrical and mechanical stresses. Their properties hardly change under these conditions.

The advantages of these materials are their moderate permittivity, large piezoelectric coupling factors, high mechanical qualities and very good stability under high mechanical loads and operating field strengths. Low dielectric losses facilitate their continuous use in resonance mode with only low intrinsic heating of the component.

Applications

Especially high-power acoustic applications benefit from the properties of hard piezo materials. Examples of their fields of application include ultrasonic cleaning (typically in the kHz frequency range), the machining of materials (ultrasonic welding, bonding, drilling, etc.), ultrasonic processors (e. g. to disperse liquid media), the medical sector (ultrasonic tartar removal, surgical instruments, etc.) and sonar technology.

Material Properties and Classification

PIC181  
Material                           Modified lead zirconate titanate
Characteristics Extremely high mechanical quality factor, good temperature and time stability of its dielectric and elasticity constants
Suitable for High-power acoustic applications, resonance-mode ultrasonic applications
Classification in
accordance
with EN 50324-1
100
MIL-Standard
DOD-STD-1376A
I
PIC184  
Material                           Modified lead zirconate titanate
Characteristics Large electromechanical coupling factor, moderately high quality factor, excellent mechanical and electrical stability
Suitable for High-power ultrasound applications, hydroacoustics, sonar technology
Classification in
accordance
with EN 50324-1
100
MIL-Standard
DOD-STD-1376A
I
PIC144  
Material                           Modified lead zirconate titanate
Characteristics Large electromechanical coupling factor, high quality factor, excellent mechanical and electrical stability, high compressive resistance
Suitable for High-power ultrasound applications, hydroacoustics, sonar technology
Classification in
accordance
with EN 50324-1
100
MIL-Standard
DOD-STD-1376A
I
PIC141  
Material                           Modified lead zirconate titanate
Characteristics High mechanical quality factor, permittivity between PIC181 and PIC 241                                              
Suitable for High-power acoustic applications, also used for pharmaceutical atomizers
Classification in
accordance
with EN 50324-1
100
MIL-Standard
DOD-STD-1376A
I
PIC241  
Material                           Modified lead zirconate titanate
Characteristics High mechanical quality factor, higher permittivity than PIC181                                                            
Suitable for High-power acoustic applications, piezomotor drives
Classification in
accordance
with EN 50324-1
100
MIL-Standard
DOD-STD-1376A
I
PIC300  
Material                           Modified lead zirconate titanate
Characteristics Very high Curie temperature
Suitable for Use at temperatures up to 250 °C (briefly up to 300 °C)                                                                    
Classification in
accordance
with EN 50324-1
100
MIL-Standard
DOD-STD-1376A
I
Lead-Free Materials
PI PIC700 Lead-Free Ceramics
 

Lead-Free Piezoelectric Materials

First Steps Towards the Industrial Use of Lead-Free Piezo Materials

With the PIC700 material from laboratory production, PI Ceramic offers the first lead-free piezo ceramic material on the market. PIC700 is based on bismuth sodium titanate (BNT) and has very similar characteristics to barium titanate materials. PIC700 is suitable for ultrasonic transducers in the MHz range and for sonar and hydrophone applications.

PIC700  
Material                           Modified bismuth-sodium-titanate
Characteristics Max. operation temperature 200 °C, low density, high coupling factor of the thickness oscillation, low permittivity and piezoelectric coupling factors compared with conventional PZT materials
Suitable for Ultrasonic transducers >1 MHz
Material Data

Material Data

The data and piezoelectric coefficients of standard materials can be downloaded as PDF:

Material Data
Specific parameters of the standard materials
Pdf 431 K

If you have any questions on the interpretation of the characteristic values of the materials, >> please contact us!

>> Learn more: Piezoelectric Coefficients

Temperature Dependence of the Coefficients

Temperature curve of the capacitance C

PI Temperature Curve Capacitance

Temperature curve of the resonant frequency of the longitudinal oscillation fs

PI Temperature Curve Resonance Frequency

Temperature curve of the coupling factor of the transverse oscillation k31

PI Temperature Curve Coupling Factor

Temperature curve of the piezoelectric charge coefficient d31

PI Temperature Curve Piezoelectric Charge Coefficient

PI Thermal Strain in Polarization 01
PI Thermal Strain Perpendicular to Polarization 01

Specific Characteristics

 

Thermal properties using PZT ceramic PIC255 as example

The thermal strain exhibits different behavior in the polarization direction and perpendicularly to it.

Non-polarized piezoceramic elements are isotropic. The coefficient of expansion is approximately linear at a temperature coefficient of approx 2 × 10-6 / K.

The preferred orientation of the domains in a polarized PZT body leads to anisotropy, which is the cause of the varying thermal expansion behavior.

The effect of successive temperature changes must be taken into account in the application. Large changes in the curve can occur particularly in the first temperature cycle.

Depending on the material, it is possible that the curves deviate strongly from those illustrated.

Downloads

Downloads

Catalog: Piezoelectric Actuators
Components, Technologies, Operation
Pdf 10.1 M CAT128E R2
Catalog: PI Piezoelectric Ceramic Products
Fundamentals, Characteristics and Applications
Pdf 793 K CAT125E
PI Ceramic REACH Regulation
Customer Information in Accordance with Article 33 (1) of the REACH Regulation
Pdf 158 K
PI Ceramic RoHS Statement
Restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment – RoHS 2011 / 65 / EU
Pdf 155 K